There are two conflicting trends in Europe: a demographic shift towards population ageing, and a massive decrease in the labour force participation of older workers (aged 50 years and over). This captivating book offers a refined and authoritative understanding of these trends and the two socio-economic concerns of most European welfare states that have been re-enforced as a consequence. These are: the increasing costs for welfare states to finance 'pathways' from employment to official retirement, and the threat of labour market shortages in the near future as a result of both the ageing process and the early exit of older workers. A variety of new policy initiatives can be observed emerging from these changes in many European countries - this book examines the different welfare state arrangements in nine EU countries plus Hungary, Slovenia and Norway. It considers ways of integrating older workers in the labour market along with differing perspectives on the relation between ageing and work.
Following the recent amalgamation of numerous rural benefices in the Church of England, many rural clergy are experiencing high levels of stress caused by time-related overextension and inadequate resources. In order to survive, these clergy need to be able to 'manage' the personal and / or environmental stressors that they encounter. Throughout the book, the factors surrounding the work-related psychological health of rural clergy have been researched through the review of relevant literature and, where appropriate, the psychometric properties of the measurement instruments being employed have been evaluated through the assessment of internal reliabilities.