In many countries, social security and related government programs provide strong incentives for workers to leave the labor force at a young age. Research has shown that disability insurance programs can play a large role in the departure of older persons from the labor force, as many workers pass through disability insurance on their path from employment to retirement. But what is the real effect that disability insurance programs have on labor-force participation in different countries? InSocial Security Programs and Retirement Around the World, renowned economist David A. Wise authoritatively tackles this question. Fifth in the series, this volume's research encompasses the globe, traveling from Belgium to Canada to Japan and the United States, and covers the provisions of disability insurance programs as well as other pathways to retirement in over twelve countries. Presented in an easily comparable way, the findings inSocial Security Programs and Retirement Around the World have profound implications for how the provisions of a country's disability insurance program affect retirement.
Although considered the best approach to motivation in terms of theoretical soundness for some 25 years, expectancy theory was considered lacking in applications. This book presents an application model that gives practical value to the expectancy theory of motivation, thus enabling managers to use it to improve individual and organizational performance. While other theories of motivation provide a theoretical framework for thinking about and understanding what motivates people in the workplace, the application model presented here for the expectancy theory of motivation goes well beyond this to provide a practical framework for diagnosing and solving individual motivation problems. Emphasis is not on simple motivation problems with straightforward solutions, but instead the focus is on how to handle difficult motivation problems, and how to deal with them in difficult circumstances, such as when the manager does not have all of the resources or authority needed to solve the problem. The application model has a bottom-line, problem-solving orientation with a focus on the individuality of employees. The book describes specific things managers can say and do to identify potential and existing motivation problems in the early stages before they get out of hand. Techniques for determining the causes of individual motivation problems are presented. Practical solution approaches are offered, along with guidelines of choosing solutions that match problem causes and suggestions for effectively implementing the solutions. The core of the application model is found in a one-on-one format for managers to follow in working with individual employees to jointly identify motivation problems, causes, and solutions. The principal contribution of the application model rests with the special ways presented for dealing with difficult motivation problems when the manager's hands are tied relative to the solutions that can be offered.